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Nineteenth Century Collections Online unites multiple, distinct archives into a single resource of over one hundred types of primary source documents. The content is sourced from the world's preeminent libraries and archives.

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It consists of monographs, newspapers, pamphlets, manuscripts, ephemera, maps, photographs, statistics, and other kinds of documents in both Western and non-Western languages. Because some documents are rare and in delicate or extremely fragile condition, Gale works in close coordination with curators and preservationists to maintain the originals for posterity. With authoritative content, trustworthy and extensive bibliographic information, and technology that fits the needs of today's researchers, Nineteenth Century Collections Online is poised to revolutionize research on the nineteenth century.

Researchers can explore rare government reports, diplomatic correspondence, periodicals, newspapers, treaties, trade agreements, NGO papers, and more within this resource, which covers such topics as British and US foreign policy and diplomacy; Asian political, economic, and social affairs; the Boxer Rebellion; missionary activity in Asia; and much more. With this collection, scholars can research and explore primary sources covering such topics as British domestic and foreign policy, the working class, trade unions, Chartism, utopian socialism, public protest, radical movements, the cartographic record, political reform, education, family relationships, religion, leisure, and many others.

19th Century Reforms: Crash Course US History #15

This collection includes receipts and archives from the Drury Lane Theatre, Royal Philharmonic Society music manuscripts, and the largely forgotten Wandering Minstrels archive, which opens a rare glimpse into the decades of Gilbert and Sullivan. The archive enables scholars to explore primary sources covering such topics as Victorian popular culture, street literature, social history, music, bloods and penny dreadfuls, professional acting on the London stage, the Royal Literary Fund, British dramatic works, and many others.

Researchers can find a wealth of children's literature texts from around the world with Nineteenth Century Collections Online: Children's Literature and Childhood. This collection documents the changing construction of childhood, the growing popularity of children's literature, and the legal and sociological context for both. This collection opens an array of compelling subjects for research and teaching, making it a rich resource for many academic disciplines and areas of study.

This unique collection of monographs includes a wide range of Romantic literature published in English, French, and German. Sourced from Castle Corvey in North Rhine - Westphalia, Germany, the Corvey Collection is one of the most-important surviving collections of works from the period. With a special focus on these rare works, especially difficult-to-find works by lesser-known women writers, more than 9, titles are included. Nineteenth Century Collections Online: Europe and Africa: Commerce, Christianity, Civilization, and Conquest presents a dramatic, gripping chronicle of exploration and missions from the early nineteenth century through the Conference of Berlin in and the subsequent scramble for Africa.

Unique sources provide a wealth of research topics on explorers, politicians, evangelists, journalists, and tycoons blinded by romantic nationalism or caught up in the competition for markets and converts.

The Other Nineteenth Century | Avram Davidson | Macmillan

These monographs, manuscripts, and newspapers cover key issues of economics, world politics, and international strategy. The nineteenth century encompassed tremendous growth in maps and map making as the field of cartography gained visibility and professional standards.

Mapping of the world during this time period was driven by massive industrialization and exploration. As people ventured further from traditional population centers, a new market for reliable maps was created. In , diamonds were discovered in the Kimberley region of South Africa. In , gold was discovered in Transvaal. This led to colonization in Southern Africa by the British and business interests, led by Cecil Rhodes. The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in by William Whewell , [21] which soon replaced the older term of natural philosopher.

Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of Charles Darwin alongside the independent researches of Alfred Russel Wallace , who in published the book The Origin of Species , which introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection. Another important landmark in medicine and biology were the successful efforts to prove the germ theory of disease. Following this, Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies , and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals.

In chemistry, Dmitri Mendeleev , following the atomic theory of John Dalton , created the first periodic table of elements. Thermodynamics led to an understanding of heat and the notion of energy was defined.


Other highlights include the discoveries unveiling the nature of atomic structure and matter, simultaneously with chemistry — and of new kinds of radiation. In astronomy, the planet Neptune was discovered. In mathematics, the notion of complex numbers finally matured and led to a subsequent analytical theory; they also began the use of hypercomplex numbers.

Karl Weierstrass and others carried out the arithmetization of analysis for functions of real and complex variables. It also saw rise to new progress in geometry beyond those classical theories of Euclid, after a period of nearly two thousand years. The mathematical science of logic likewise had revolutionary breakthroughs after a similarly long period of stagnation.


But the most important step in science at this time were the ideas formulated by the creators of electrical science. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about: Thomas Alva Edison gave the world a practical everyday lightbulb. Nikola Tesla pioneered the induction motor , high frequency transmission of electricity, and remote control. Other new inventions were electrical telegraphy and the telephone. On the literary front the new century opens with romanticism , a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway.

William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are considered the initiators of the new school in England, while in the continent the German Sturm und Drang spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain. French arts had been hampered by the Napoleonic Wars but subsequently developed rapidly. Modernism began.

Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic and cultural diversity. There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. The Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the later half of the century, with Paris being the dominant art capital of the world. Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century.

Much of the music from the 19th century was referred to as being in the Romantic style. The list includes:. Henry David Thoreau , August John L Sullivan in his prime, c. David Livingstone , left Britain for Africa in Jesse and Frank James , Geronimo , , prominent leader of the Chiricahua Apache.

Thomas Nast , c. Claude Monet 's Impression, Sunrise , , gave the name to Impressionism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see 19th century disambiguation.

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Main articles: Latin American wars of independence and Spanish American wars of independence. Main articles: Abolitionism and American Civil War. Main article: Meiji Restoration. Main articles: Western imperialism in Asia and Scramble for Africa. Main articles: Romantic poetry and 19th century in literature.

See also: History of photography , List of photojournalists , Photojournalism , and Daguerreotype. Main articles: History of painting , Western painting , and Ukiyo-e. Main articles: List of Romantic-era composers , Romantic music , and Romanticism. Main article: Timeline of the 19th century.

For later events, see Timeline of the 20th century. Main articles: Robber baron industrialist and business magnate. Carl Friedrich Gauss. Charles Darwin. Dmitri Mendeleev. Louis Pasteur , Marie Curie , c. Nikola Tesla. Leo Tolstoy c. Edgar Allan Poe. Charles Dickens. Arthur Rimbaud c. Mark Twain , Ralph Waldo Emerson. Anton Chekhov. Read preview. Synopsis The American literary canon has been the subject of debate and change for at least a decade.

Literature By Scott S. Derrick Rutgers University Press, Read preview Overview. Knight Greenwood Press, K ta, Vol. American Educational History Journal, Vol. The Tracker, Vol. Black Issues in Higher Education, Vol. Merle Rubin regularly reviews literature and contemporary fiction. The Christian Science Monitor, July 23, We use cookies to deliver a better user experience and to show you ads based on your interests.