Vienna, Trattner, —7. I could not verify, if Stephanie was still involved as editor of this publication. The numbering of the volumes is kept continuous across the differently titled journals: volume 1 and 2 appeared as Gesammelte Schriften, volume 3 and 4 as Neue Sammlung and volume 5 as Neue gesammelte Schriften. For further particulars about this series, see the relevant entries in Helmut W.
Lang, ed. Munich, The first German translation of the work appeared —5: it was translated by Johann Mattheson and published by Weidmann in Leipzig. Then the volumes got sent back to St. Gilgen one by one with thanks from Heinrich. Leipzig, Weidmann, —5. The text of An die Freude K53 is a typical example of this style, laden with references to antiquity and untainted nature. Wolfgang composed three more songs before for one song he used a text by the freemason Ludwig Friedrich Lenz K and the two others set French lyrics by Antoine Ferrand and Antoine Houdar de la Motte K—8.
The dependence on Klopstock is pointed out in the commentary to this letter, see Briefe, v, For a complete listing of the editions of Edone, see Christiane Boghardt, ed. Briefe, iii, ; not in Letters. Another prayer book of the Mozarts was part of the collections at the Salzburg Museum, but could not be found any more. This is the only instance that Leopold mentions the Lesegesellschaft in Salzburg: it is possible that he himself was a member of the Lesegesellschaft, too, but no documentation for this survives.
I am grateful to Peter Schneeberger and Dr. Gerhard Plasser in the library of the Salzburg Museum, who pointed my attention to this book within their collection. Vienna, Kirchberger, — Augsburg, Rieger, Manzador, Predigen, ii, title page.
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It also includes very practical information, such as conversion tables for different currencies. Gilgen each owned a copy of it. Pascal sur la religion. It is not documented whether Leopold owned either version of the book, but considering that it was his favourite book in the early s, we can safely assume this to be the case. Troppau, s. Anja Morgenstern, who drew my attention to this document.
The current location of the original is unknown. Viktor Keldorfer owned this volume until the late s and he made photocopies of all three notes for the ISM. Alexander Altmann Stuttgart, , —3. It signifies the excellent and tender state of the mind, the heart and the senses, by which a person discerns quickly and strongly his duties and by which he feels a potent drive to do good deeds.
Danuta Mirka Oxford, , —4. While Empfindsamkeit as such was seen as a valuable capacity, which should be encouraged and cultivated,8 the dangers of a too radical, an excessive sensibility were articulated by theorists throughout the second half of the eighteenth century, too. Intellectual reasoning and also bodily exercise should balance a too sensitive nervous system. On the contrary, reason and sensibility were both capabilities of the human soul that were central to an enlightenment of mankind.
While thoughts and reason were clear and distinct impressions on the soul, Empfindung could be obscure and multifarious. There is a historical reason, as the focus on sensibility as a positive faculty of the soul was a fairly short-lived one. These words only came into common use during the later half of the eighteenth century. Klaus P.
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Hansen Passau, , The idea of sensibility never quite recovered from this downturn in our perception. This is linked to the confusion of the personal, enlightened use of reason with blind intellectualism which was attacked by enlightenment philosophers. Enlightenment thinkers turned against intellectualism and abstract deduction by appealing to the personal cognition and to personal sensibility. Thus cognition and sensibility were both perceived as means to overcome the old school of dogmatism. It is only with the gradual denigration of sensibility in our perception and the confusion of intellectualism and personal reasoning that a polarity between sensibility and the rational Enlightenment came into existence, but in the eighteenth century sensibility was a means to attack blind intellectualism and not enlightened reason.
For most philosophers in the eighteenth century, reason and sensibility had to go hand in hand in the quest to improve mankind. Since reason and sensibility were both seen as capacities which helped moral conduct, they both had to be taught and refined by education. Yet, the word has been in use before, even though not as widespread.
Berlin, Nicolai, —8. While these philosophical and educational treatises possibly only reached a relatively small audience in Salzburg, the broad currency of popular novels and educational literature for the youth written in this style documents a general acceptance or at least interest in the two-fold education of the mind and the heart by the Salzburg public. In the following, the currency of Empfindsamkeit as social and aesthetic ideal within Salzburg society will be looked upon from three angles.
Chapter 4. In Chapter 4. The Mozart family and their links with and attitudes to some of the people and phenomena described in this chapter come into focus in Chapter 4. Acute, excitable senses and a lively, fiery phantasy constitute sensibility. It is the foundation for a good character, it makes great minds, soft, kind-hearted, noble souls, which are happy in themselves and which make [others] happy, as long as reason keeps reign on their senses and phantasy.
Feine, reizbare Sinne, und eine lebhafte, feurige Phantasie erzeugen die Empfindsamkeit. Presumably, this pupil was Maria Anna Mayr von Mayrn, called Nannerl, who was born around and who took piano lessons with her namesake Nannerl Mozart in the s. Apparently, demand for this work was high enough to merit a local reprint, or the book was even part of the official school curriculum in the s: after all, the Waisenhaus press was the official printing press of the court and the university.
The Anleitung zur Tugend und Rechtschaffenheit was another local educational publication that appeared anonymously in Salzburg at the Waisenhaus printing press in NannerlDiary, 36— Good taste is also a high value. It teaches us to sense the beautiful in all arts and sciences. Yet, never mind the inconsistencies of the argument, these sentences prove the importance put on the fine arts in the education of the capacities of the soul.
In addition, the Anleitung zur Tugend und Rechtschaffenheit names some more recent musical authors of importance, as Scheibe, Marpurg, Agricola and Christian Gottfried Krause. For the author, good company does not only apply to people, whom one mixes with, but also to books: The company of writings does also count as part of the [good] company, which all people can have. By this I understand such writings, which affect our heart, which teach us the beauty of nature […], such writings, in which the duties of man are presented beautifully.
It flows not only for these short times, but will be a rivulet for all eternity that refreshingly pours forth into your soul. Letter writing, and as a literary genre the epistolary novel, were means to act out true friendships undisturbed by geographical distances, a pristine meeting of kindred souls.
Gleim did not only glorify friendship in his writings, but he also cultivated this ideal of friendship in his life. Neither was it dependent on personal encounters or the physical presence of the friend. I am grateful to Ms. Veronika Klepper, who provided valuable assistance with the translation of these verses. Ute Pott, ed. Figures from classical mythology gathered in his music room included Apollo, Juno and Jove, pictured as the father of the Graces. Salzburg composers were present, too: a picture of Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber and the engraving of the family portrait of the Mozarts by Delafosse.
The museum has around portraits from that time and the sitters for two thirds of these portraits are identifiable. The bookshop Mayr sold a concise treatise on cutting silhouettes 58 For an introduction to and descriptions of portraits in this collection, see Albin Rohrmoser, ed.
For reproductions of these silhouettes, see DeutschBilder, Franz Lactanz Firmian, the Obersthofmeister at the court, owned the most important portrait collection in eighteenth-century Salzburg. This report from Salzburg is actually written by Karl Ehrenbert von Moll. One of the walls of this chamber was devoted to portraits of famous Salzburg inhabitants from the fifteenth until the late eighteenth century, some of them were oil paintings others copper engravings. Such English gardens promised the perfect illusion of untouched nature enhanced in its beauty by human landscaping.
Martin Scheutz Bochum, , — In the eighteenth century two picturesque gardens were built at the village of Aigen outside Salzburg upstream to the South, which later were united into a single site. The garden consisted of an array of orchards and fields, of meadows and flowerbeds.
A hermitage and a grave- mound were situated within the garden, as well as a little green house and a vineyard. In the middle of the plan lies the castle with some smaller houses and a formal garden laid out in geometrical shapes. At the back of the castle there is a forest landscaped into an English garden. A large circular walk leads around the garden and several paths crisscrossing the forest are visible, too see Figure He draws the words from your heart, not your heart from the words. Not your bended knee, not tears, not words, sighs, psalms or chants, neither do your vows move God; but your longing, your faith in him and his Son.
The most Freundschaftsaltare Amicitiae sacrum zu einem der wonnereichsten Lusthaine umgeschaffen haben. The translation by Pamela Dellal is available online, see Darrell M. Berg, ed. Three of these friends are known by name, Joseph Ernst Gilowsky von Urazowa, Friedrich Franz Joseph von Spaur and Count Wolfegg, but others might have been involved in the garden design, too.
For general information on masonic gardens in Europe, see Jan A. Snoek, Monika Scholl and Andrea A. Kroon, eds. When the theatre opened in , there was finally an adequate public venue to satisfy the theatre-fever of the citizens. The first extensive account of the plays and operas performed at the Salzburg theatre was published by Karl Wagner in Thus the repertoire performed during the first three seasons from and are now known.
Although this information has been available for some time, it has never been collated in one place. A Tragedy. Banks London, Yet, Schidenhofen in his diary as well as the Theaterwochenblatt report an entirely unfavourable reception of the play in Salzburg. The latter exclusively performed Italian operas and Italian comedies, most of which were by Carlo Goldoni. Johann Christian Brandes featured most prominently on the list as the author of four plays performed during that season. The Theaterwochenblatt was a journal published anonymously, which appeared twice a week during the opening season of the theatre at the Hannibalplatz in —6.
The paper provided a playlist of the inaugural season, some extended reviews of the plays and of their performances 19 July The editorial content of the Theaterwochenblatt was rounded off with systematic listings of original German stage works and newly published books on the theatre and with brief descriptions of different theatres in Germany. These reviews were detailed examinations of the merits and faults of a play and its performance and they provided a critical foundation for the reader, on which to build his or her own opinion.
The Theaterwochenblatt was also an obvious marketing strategy for the local theatre enterprise, trying to spark interest and participation from the local public in this new venture. Therefore much space in the journal was accorded to anecdotes from the international theatre scene and to contributions by the readership in the form of questions, opinions and eulogistic poems in admiration of the actors. Johann Joachim Christoph Bode, 3 vols.
Hamburg, Bode, Jochen Schulte- Sasse Munich, , The performances were very popular among all ranks of Salzburg society and the auditorium occasionally was so overcrowded that even members of the nobility had to stand during the plays or were turned away. In it was given in its Latin form as Pietas in patriam, while in it was translated into German now titled Hermann, ein Beyspiel der Liebe zum Vaterlande. In November an official regulation was issued that German literature and poetry should be presented at the end of the school year instead of fully staged theatrical performances.
See Boberski, Das Theater der Benediktiner, —8. While the subject is clearly within the realm of traditional religious education, the author is a Lutheran theologian, who lived in Hamburg. Nothing is documented about the reception of this performance that presented excerpts of enlightenment literature in such a radically new format. For the first time the textbook of the end-of-year performance was not written by a Benedictine professor from the university, but was a foreign product. Der Tod Abels was premiered in in Magdeburg, where Rolle was the city music director, and the work quickly gained prominence in the German-speaking lands.
Buchdruckerey, [A-Su, I], abstract [unpaginated]. Brook, ed. The printed textbook gives an explanation for the additional music by Haydn in the preface: Herr Patzke is the author of this Singspiel and Herr Rolle, music director in Berlin, set it to music. At the end, something seemed to be missing in the music that we got. And this conjecture was strengthened by the exemplar of Herr Klopstock regarding the [figure of] Thirza: the court concertmaster Herr Michael Haydn compensated this deficiency perfectly.
Peter Wollny Beeskow, , — A copy of the edition by Fleischhauer survives at the Bibliothek der Erzabtei St. Further back, the thicket gradually increases and only some bits of meadow appear in between. Sideways at the front is a waterfall and a bench of grass. Based on the accompanied recitative, the style is marked by sudden changes in dynamics, in instrumentation and in the figuration, by abrupt changes of metre and harmony and by a declamatory freedom of the melodies. The music mirrors the emotional torment of the protagonists, sometimes simultaneously depicting their words, sometimes anticipating or following up emotions expressed in the text.
Sie gab mit Aug und Hand mir gar kein einz-ges? Mut - ter! Gott steh ihr bey! Starting with a b-flat the first violin falls down a minor sixth to d in the middle of the bar, before meandering up to an a-flat at the end. Thus the melody in bar 1 outlines two typical intervals of anguish and distress: the falling minor sixth between beginning and middle of the bar and a falling whole note figure from b-flat to a-flat from the first beat to the fourth.
The rhythmical values of this melody add to an undercurrent of restlessness, which is enhanced by the abrupt stop of the melody on the first quaver on the fourth beat. The middle voices and the bass provide a transitional motif in semi-quavers to bar 2, but this transition is far from a smooth one: the dots under the slurs in the second violin and the viola and the dots on the bass line indicate a stuttering move from bar 1 to bar 2.
The first violin repeats the melodic figuration of the second half of bar 1 in bar 2, but now in a sudden and forceful forte. The melodic line whizzes up the octave from d to d1, reaching the ninth e-flat in the middle of the bar and extending in range to the eleventh during the second half of bar 2.
This second half is marked by the melodic intervals of two slurred couples of semiquavers marking a falling fourth and a diminished falling fourth, before the final desperate descend of a falling seventh from g1 to a-natural in bar 3, all this marked forte. Harmonically, these introductory two bars remain instable throughout. They start on an E-flat major chord in first inversion, which slips down to a d-minor harmony in first inversion on the middle of the first bar.
With the forte marking on beat one of bar 2, the bass finally provides the fundamental note of the chord, b-flat, but the minor seventh in the second violin keeps the harmony unstable. A fleeting suggestion of stability is touched upon towards the end of bar 2, but the melodic figuration of the first violin thwarts any sense of harmonic ease, no matter how insistently the fundamental note is repeated in the bass. These opening bars end on an inverted F-major seventh chord on E-flat in the bass, which is hold out as a minim opening the curtain for Hanniel to sing his first words.
The distress and anguish of the scene to come is already audible in this short introduction, which is repeated as an interlude in an even more agitated version in bar 4, abruptly cut off in the middle of bar 5. She did not give me a sign with her eyes or hands, when weeping I asked her and cried Mother!
This passage is exactly the textually much-chided duet for Hanniel and Surinam, the two bereaved sons, and it elicits some absolutely wonderful music from Haydn. Sie gab mit Aug und Hand mir gar kein einzges Zeichen; da ich doch weinend bath, und Mutter! The winds and the bass only come in after the first beat with two quavers, gently nudging the melody on, which pauses right after the first motif. With bar 3 a steady movement is established in this section and the calmness is brought about by regular quavers in the bass and by the relatively slow harmonic progression, now working again in more normal relations of dominant and tonic in contrast to the haphazard harmonic ruptures in the recitative style of the opening passage of the last scene.
The subdivision of the quavers into triplets adds to a sense of airiness amidst the grief, which burdens all persons on stage at this point of the plot. The ten[uto] marking for the crotchets in the bass line from bar 9 onwards keeps the bass players from shortening their notes, as would be customary in such accompanying lines.
The long, possibly even singing, notes in the bass line further emphasise the gently singing quality of the duet. Into this instrumental setting, the orphaned Hanniel and Sunam sing their plaintive words: Sunam: Oh anguish, my father has faded! Hanniel: Oh torment, the mother has gone! Both: Now we are father-motherless Alas! Sunam: Only you, oh Adam! Mein Vater ist erblichen! Haydn [above:] Heinr. A scribe working from the keyboard reduction before the music was edited and augmented by Haydn would not have any reason to name him on the title.
He assumes an Augsburg provenance of the score. Firstly, the manuscript A-Ssp, Hay Thirdly, a printed textbook for the Salzburg performance survives under the shelfmark A-Ssp, Hay While these three items probably stand in direct connection with the performance of Der Tod Abels in , two further manuscripts document the continued esteem of the work in the decades afterwards. The original version of the work by Rolle and Patzke was given on the school theatre.
Apparently, the university theatre was totally overcrowded for the Salzburg performance of Der Tod Abels on 3 September the abbot of the Benedictine monastery Ettal was turned away and even Beda Seeauer, the abbot of St. Peter, could not find a seat in the theatre. We can only assume that Leopold at least was aware of what happened at the university theatre, as musicians of the court music and singers from the Kapellhaus, where Leopold taught, were involved in the performance.
He left Salzburg the year before with high hopes of securing an employment at one of the courts abroad or at least of earning a decent sum touring, but neither came true and the trip turned out to be a financial disaster. Furthermore, Wolfgang started out on this journey in company of his mother, whose passing in Paris in July , far away from home, was a shock to the entire family.
With this personal bereavement and the financial failure in the background, Wolfgang dreaded the return to Salzburg See Boberski, Das Theater der Benediktiner, Yet, I would like to suggest that the tears might also be read in the larger cultural context of Empfindsamkeit, in which compassion and the display of a compassionate heart were regarded as a high value. Musicological interest in the cultural dimension of eighteenth-century music and music making increased considerably during the last decades and thus Empfindsamkeit came into focus.
Gerhard Sauder, ed. Jahrhundert Kassel, Simon Keefe Cambridge, , 74— Keefe, eds. For example, Wolfgang asked Nannerl to keep him informed about repertory and performers at the Salzburg theatre, when he was in Munich preparing Idomeneo in , and she diligently sent him a detailed listing of all plays performed.
The commentary to this letter does not identify the piece, see Briefe, vi, Being offered all the money of Perthold they plan to spend it on the education of their children and on buying a bakery, which is the trade the cousin originally trained for. Several side plots add to the sentimental character of the piece: Walter marries the stepdaughter of Perthold and both are portrayed as morally unadulterated young persons.
While this story might seem entirely trivial to us nowadays, it was lauded for its depiction of feelings and of Empfindsamkeit, as human capacity, which ultimately lead to good deeds. Often it is a sorrowful farewell that brought the tears about and those tears are the proof of sincere friendship. Compassion and being moved, Empfindsamkeit, were obviously a valued capacity and understood as such within the Mozart family. He has a daughter who plays the clavier quite nicely; and in order to properly make a friend of him I am now working at a sonata for her, which is almost finished save for the Rondo.
In Mannheim, Wolfgang planned or at least purported to use the same policy in order to attain the favour of the Elector and Leopold clearly approved of this. In addition, Leopold admonished his son also to befriend the governess, presumably because her influence on the children and the parents was crucially important in such a plot. For this reason Leopold gave them a letter of recommendation to Hagenauer and also wrote the following lines to his landlord separately: And now it is time to tell you something about my two friends from Saxony, Baron von Hopfgarten and Baron von Bose.
Menschen sehen, die alles haben, was ein ehrlicher Mann auf dieser Welt haben soll: und, wenn sie gleich beyde Lutheraner sind; so sind sie doch ganz andere Lutheraner, und Leuthe, an denen ich mich oft sehr erbauet habe. Perhaps this hope came true in , when Leopold visited Wolfgang in Vienna and attended several concerts of his son. Thus the full context of the words above reads: I know that you love me, not merely as your father, but also as your truest and surest friend; that you understand and realise that our happiness and unhappiness, and, what is more, my long life or my speedy death are, if I may say so, apart from God, in your hands.
Such visits provided a way to establish personal emotional ties with luminaries of the past, just as hanging their pictures on walls at home. In Antwerp, the family visited the tomb of the painter Rubens, which included a portrait of the painter and his family, as Leopold noted specifically.
Friendships made on journeys often evolved during a very short time and one hoped to conserve such fleeting encounters of true friendship by exchanging a keepsake upon departure. For a description of the tomb, its attraction and its meaning for travellers in the eighteenth century, see Constanze Baum, Ruinenlandschaften Heidelberg, , — Ute Pott, Leopold used the engraving of it for merchandising purposes on this tour, as well as selling it as a souvenir for years to come.
A facsimile of the dedication letter is included in DeutschBilder, Though Leopold was at first deeply sceptical about the new castrato Francesco Ceccarelli, who arrived in Salzburg in autumn , they Dokumente, —9; Documentary Biography, — Mozart, ii, Robbins Landon London, , 8. When Leopold, Wolfgang and Nannerl Mozart permanently lived in different places, the exchange of portraits also played a role within the family: in April Wolfgang sent two portraits, one of him and one of his wife Constanze, from Vienna and the arrival of the portraits was important enough for Nannerl to merit an entry in her diary.
Gilgen from January Perhaps Nannerl had a particular interest in collecting silhouettes. Maria Margaretha Marchand stayed with Leopold and Nannerl in Salzburg between and and Leopold taught her keyboard playing, singing and composition. Before she returned to Munich in summer , she wrote a letter to Nannerl, who had just married Johann Baptist Berchthold von Sonnenburg and moved to St. See Briefe, vi, The cultural transfer of books, plays and ideas from the northern part of Germany clearly played a considerable role within the intellectual, artistic and academic life in Salzburg during the second half of the eighteenth century.
The current chapter will describe how the musical links between North Germany and Salzburg were much stronger than commonly assumed, too. It is in the realm of domestic music making that the influence of North German musical culture is most clearly visible. This part of Salzburg music culture hardly received any attention until now within musicological or historical research beyond the bare facts that Leopold, Wolfgang and Nannerl Mozart tutored some noble children in piano or violin playing.
Regarding domestic music making he states that it is beyond our knowledge and assumes that it only became widespread during the nineteenth century. Johann Andreas Schachtner, preface [unpaginated]. See Violinschule, preface [unpaginated]. Wilhelm Rausch Linz, , The first part of this chapter will investigate the music trade in Salzburg and provide an overview on the sales channels Chapter 5. This is followed by a detailed documentation of North German publications available in town Chapter 5.
Very often these church compositions allowed expressly for flexible or small performance forces, so as to increase their commercial viability. Other voices and instruments can be added to make up a four-part chorus and an ensemble of two violins and two horns in addition to the continuo. These were mainly music treatises, piano pieces and songs, a repertory clearly aimed at a bourgeois market of amateur music lovers, which I will detail below.
All the itinerant book traders coming to the Salzburg fairs also dealt with sheet music and their sales catalogues prove the general availability of a wide range of music publications in Salzburg. It is impossible to determine which of the advertised volumes of sheet music the traders Lotter, Wolff, Schwarzkopf and Klett brought to Salzburg in physical copies for the fairs. In addition to these general book traders, who also dealt with some music, there were two specialist music dealers and publishers active on the Salzburg market: Johann Jakob Lotter from Augsburg and Johann Ulrich Haffner from Nuremberg.
Lotter was the music publisher with the strongest presence in Salzburg during the second half of the eighteenth century. Lotter published music catalogues fairly regularly and the surviving catalogues prove his repeated presence at the Salzburg fairs between and The extant catalogues from this period all state on the title pages that Lotter visited both of the Salzburg fairs. Missae rurales, quibus accedunt II.
Missae de requiem Augsburg, Lotter, The agents were mostly book traders, such as Lotter in Augsburg, and some musicians. Cited in Rheinfurth, Der Musikverlag Lotter, See Rheinfurth, Der Musikverlag Lotter, 49— To my knowledge, the catalogue of is the only one by Haffner extant today and therefore it is impossible to verify, since when Leopold Mozart acted as agent for Haffner. Yet, the catalogue might date from , as several publications advertised seem to postdate yet, the dating of the plate numbers by Hoffmann-Erbrecht is not beyond doubt. Yet, a comprehensive selection of books on music and music treatises by north German authors or published in North Germany was also available in town.
In particular the writings of Johann Mattheson, Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg and Georg Andreas Sorge featured frequently in the sales catalogues of the book traders. The large amount of music literature and music treatises reflected the trend to a more structured and scientific music education, as opposed to the purely oral tradition of teaching music. It also shows how music education and musical knowledge became part of the general culture of educated citizens. Some highly specialised books on organ building or mathematical calculations of tunings were advertised by the book traders, too, even though these books probably did not appeal to a wide audience.
The asterisks specify editions by other publishers. The two volumes of this work were sold by Schwarzkopf in A biography and an engraved portrait of Georg Philipp Telemann within J. In his book Buttstett tried to reassure the eternal validity of traditional music theory against the newfangled writings by Mattheson. It included sections on figured bass, on playing the most common instruments keyboard, strings and flute and also on instrument building. The composition and ground bass treatises available on the Salzburg market encompass the full range from highly complex treatises to simple introductions for the amateur Liebhaber.
In Marpurg started an educational anthology of fugues, titled Fugen-Sammlung, which he planned to continue annually, but only the first volume got published and was distributed in Salzburg. Figured bass still was the foundation of any compositional training. A diverse range of instrumental treatises from North Germany could also be purchased in Salzburg. In , the book trader Klett stocked a piano treatise written particularly for children by Georg Friedrich Merbach, published in Leipzig in Specialist books on the questions of tuning temperaments for keyboard instruments by Barthold Fritz and Johann Georg Neidhardt were advertised by Lotter, as well as three publications by Georg Andreas Sorge dealing with the subject of mathematical proportions of intervals and tuning.
Only a small selection of these books survives in Salzburg archives and libraries today.
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Some of these volumes can be securely attributed to a specific owner in the eighteenth century. Published by Johann Wilhelm Windter around , Lotter advertised them in his sales catalogue of Not only the theoretical writings, but also a large selection of keyboard compositions by Georg Andreas Sorge were available in Salzburg. All of these works were published by Schmid in Nuremberg and J. Lotter advertised them in his sales catalogues. Nuremberg, Haffner, —8. Both sets were probably available on the Salzburg market. In and J. Lotter issued a probably unauthorised reprint of the collection in These keyboard pieces were specifically designed for the beginner and included detailed fingerings.
Bach are given in the appendix. Three volumes of solo keyboard music by Johann Ludwig Krebs, a pupil of Johann Sebastian Bach at the Thomasschule in Leipzig, appeared repeatedly in the sales catalogues of J. Lotter and Haffner, who was also the publisher of the works. Johann Peter Kellner was another composer from Thuringia, whose keyboard music clearly fared well on the South German market: J.
Some volumes of keyboard music printed by Breitkopf in Leipzig were also sold in Salzburg. In J. The volume contained not only sonatas and sonatinas for keyboard alone, but also some songs and a sonata for keyboard accompanied by a string quartett. While the publications mentioned above mostly contain sonatas, sonatinas or fashionable piano pieces, volumes with older keyboard works or slightly antiquarian genres such as suites, capriccios or preludes and fugues were also available in Salzburg.
Mattheson published two volumes of fugues with two or three subjects in Hamburg between and Haffner issued a second edition of these works in and J. Lotter See Christopher Hogwood, ed. Sabine Doering-Manteuffel s. In addition, Lotter also stocked a Sonate pour le clavecin by Mattheson. Haffner issued the first volume in and the series grew to twelve volumes by Each book contained six sonatas by composers from the German- speaking lands.
Many of the North German composers named above featured in the anthology: eight sonatas by C. Haffner promises to give the author six free copies of the volume as remuneration, in which the composition is included. Thus, beyond the distribution of this anthology by Lotter and Haffner, six copies of volumes 4, 8 and 9 and even twelve copies of volumes 5 and 6 were definitely in circulation in Salzburg, because they included compositions by Adlgasser, Eberlin or Leopold Mozart.
Bach Wq deest; H Yet, the volume stems from the Cistercian monastery Wilhering in upper Austria. Published around —1, the two volumes of this anthology contained six sonatas each. Both volumes open with a sonata by C. In general, the variations are for solo keyboard, apart from two, where a third voice is added, in one instance for the flute, in the other for a third hand on the same keyboard.
The Salzburg bookshop Mayr advertises this set of variations in the year of its publication. The catalogues of the book traders active in Salzburg also included some accompanied keyboard sonatas, all scored for keyboard and violin or flute. The sets of parts for one or even two concertos by C. Bach could be bought in Salzburg from mid-eighteenth century onwards: J. This description is unequivocal for the catalogues of and , For a more detailed discussion of this piece in the Nannerl Notenbuch, see Chapter 5.
Balthasar Schmid published another concerto by C. Lotter and Wolff in the year of their publication. Haffner published two collections of three concertos each by Johan Joachim Agrell. The first set from is scored for solo keyboard and strings, the second from adds another soloist part, which can be played on the flute or the violin. The Salzburg public did not lag behind in their quest for modern songs and the earliest volumes of German Lieder, published in the North, were sold in town.
Later in the century, songs by Wotquenne dates this print to , but the date is corrected to by Horst Heussner. Jahrhundert, ed. Singing songs was part of the modern education of children and thus several volumes advertised in Salzburg were specifically written for young singers. Bronnen's transition to the left was complete by , when he became director of the Viennese Neues Theater, which performed plays emphasizing communist themes.
In , he moved to East Berlin at the invitation of East Germany's cultural minister. Here he worked as theater critic and publicist for the Berliner Zeitung and continued to produce such left-wing plays as Die Kette Kolin. Unfortunately, the reputation he still had from his earlier plays, which were considered bourgeois by the East Germans, prevented Bronnen from rediscovering success in his final years. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. July 3, Retrieved July 03, from Encyclopedia.
Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Home Arts Educational magazines Bronnen, Arnolt — Print this article Print all entries for this topic Cite this article. Bronnen, Arnolt — A. Sonnenberg radio play , Hobbing Berlin, Germany , Napoleon's Fall , Rowohlt Berlin, Germany , Erinnerung an eine Liebe , Rowohlt Berlin, Germany , Viergespann , Aufbau Berlin, Germany , Domination by France during the French Revolution s to , however, produced important institutional reforms, that included the abolition of feudal restrictions on the sale of large landed estates, the reduction of the power of the guilds in the cities, and the introduction of a new, more efficient commercial law.
The idea, that these reforms were beneficial for Industrialization has been contested. Until , the guilds, the landed aristocracy, the churches and the government bureaucracies maintained many rules and restrictions that held entrepreneurship in low esteem and given little opportunity to develop. From the s and s, Prussia, Saxony and other states introduced agriculture based on sugar beets, turnips and potatoes, that yielded higher crops, which enabled a surplus rural population to move to industrial areas.
In the early 19th century the Industrial Revolution was in full swing in Britain, France, and Belgium. The various small federal states in Germany developed only slowly and independently as competition was strong.
Major Companies of Germany
Early investments for the railway network during the s came almost exclusively from private hands. Without a central regulatory agency the construction projects were quickly realized. Actual industrialization only took off after in the wake of the railroad construction. Historian Thomas Nipperdey remarks:. On the whole, industrialisation in Germany must be considered to have been positive in its effects. Not only did it change society and the countryside, and finally the world It solved the problems of population growth, under-employment and pauperism in a stagnating economy, and abolished dependency on the natural conditions of agriculture, and finally hunger.
It created huge improvements in production and both short- and long-term improvements in living standards. However, in terms of social inequality, it can be assumed that it did not change the relative levels of income. On the other hand, new problems arose, in the form of interrupted growth and new crises, such as urbanisation, 'alienation', new underclasses, proletariat and proletarian misery, new injustices and new masters and, eventually, class warfare.
After , the urban population grew rapidly, due to the influx of young people from the rural areas. Berlin grew from , in , to , inhabitants in , Hamburg from , to ,, Munich from 40, to , and Dresden from 60, to , The takeoff stage of economic development came with the railroad revolution in the s, which opened up new markets for local products, created a pool of middle managers, increased the demand for engineers, architects and skilled machinists and stimulated investments in coal and iron.
Political disunity of three dozen states and a pervasive conservatism made it difficult to build railways in the s. However, by the s, trunk lines did link the major cities; each German state was responsible for the lines within its own borders. Economist Friedrich List summed up the advantages to be derived from the development of the railway system in Lacking a technological base at first, engineering and hardware was imported from Britain. In many cities, the new railway shops were the centres of technological awareness and training, so that by , Germany was self-sufficient in meeting the demands of railroad construction, and the railways were a major impetus for the growth of the new steel industry.
Observers found that even as late as , their engineering was inferior to Britain. However, German unification in stimulated consolidation, nationalisation into state-owned companies, and further rapid growth. Unlike the situation in France, the goal was the support of industrialisation. Eventually numerous lines criss-crossed the Ruhr area and other industrial centers and provided good connections to the major ports of Hamburg and Bremen. By , 9, locomotives pulled 43, passengers and 30, tons of freight a day. While there existed no national newspaper the many states issued a great variety of printed media, although they rarely exceeded regional significance.
In a typical town existed one or two outlets, urban centers, such as Berlin and Leipzig had dozens. The audience was limited to a few percent of male adults, chiefly from the aristocratic and upper middle class. Liberal publishers outnumbered conservative ones by a wide margin.
Foreign governments bribed editors to guarantee a favorable image. After , strict press laws were enforced by Bismarck to contain the Socialists and hostile editors. Editors focused on political commentary, culture, the arts, high culture and the popular serialized novels.
Magazines were politically more influential and attracted intellectual authors. The Sturm und Drang romantic movement was embraced and emotion was given free expression in reaction to the perceived rationalism of the Enlightenment. Philosophical principles and methods were revolutionized by Immanuel Kant 's paradigm shift. Ludwig van Beethoven — was the most influential composer of the period from classical to Romantic music. His use of tonal architecture in such a way as to allow significant expansion of musical forms and structures was immediately recognized as bringing a new dimension to music.
His later piano music and string quartets, especially, showed the way to a completely unexplored musical universe, and influenced Franz Schubert — and Robert Schumann — In opera, a new Romantic atmosphere combining supernatural terror and melodramatic plot in a folkloric context was first successfully achieved by Carl Maria von Weber — and perfected by Richard Wagner — in his Ring Cycle. University professors developed international reputations, especially in the humanities led by history and philology, which brought a new historical perspective to the study of political history, theology, philosophy, language, and literature.
The University of Berlin , founded in , became the world's leading university. Von Ranke, for example, professionalized history and set the world standard for historiography. By the s mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology had emerged with world class science, led by Alexander von Humboldt — in natural science and Carl Friedrich Gauss — in mathematics.
Young intellectuals often turned to politics, but their support for the failed revolution of forced many into exile. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Johann Wolfgang von Goethe — Joseph von Fraunhofer , physicist and optical lens manufacturer Alexander von Humboldt — Ludwig van Beethoven — Friedrich Hegel Carl Friedrich Gauss — Two main developments reshaped religion in Germany. Across the land, there was a movement to unite the larger Lutheran and the smaller Reformed Protestant churches. The churches themselves brought this about in Baden, Nassau, and Bavaria.
His goal was to unify the Protestant churches, and to impose a single standardized liturgy, organization and even architecture. The long-term goal was to have fully centralized royal control of all the Protestant churches. In a series of proclamations over several decades the Church of the Prussian Union was formed, bringing together the more numerous Lutherans, and the less numerous Reformed Protestants. The government of Prussia now had full control over church affairs, with the king himself recognized as the leading bishop.
Opposition to unification came from the "Old Lutherans" in Silesia who clung tightly to the theological and liturgical forms they had followed since the days of Luther. The government attempted to crack down on them, so they went underground. Tens of thousands migrated, to South Australia , and especially to the United States, where they formed the Missouri Synod , which is still in operation as a conservative denomination.
Finally in a new king Frederick William IV offered a general amnesty and allowed the Old Lutherans to form a separate church association with only nominal government control. From the religious point of view of the typical Catholic or Protestant, major changes were underway in terms of a much more personalized religiosity that focused on the individual more than the church or the ceremony.
The rationalism of the late 19th century faded away, and there was a new emphasis on the psychology and feeling of the individual, especially in terms of contemplating sinfulness, redemption, and the mysteries and the revelations of Christianity. Pietistic revivals were common among Protestants. Among, Catholics there was a sharp increase in popular pilgrimages. In alone, half a million pilgrims made a pilgrimage to the city of Trier in the Rhineland to view the Seamless robe of Jesus , said to be the robe that Jesus wore on the way to his crucifixion. Catholic bishops in Germany had historically been largely independent Of Rome, but now the Vatican exerted increasing control, a new " ultramontanism " of Catholics highly loyal to Rome.
The government passed laws to require that these children always be raised as Protestants, contrary to Napoleonic law that had previously prevailed and allowed the parents to make the decision. It put the Catholic Archbishop under house arrest. In , the new King Frederick William IV sought reconciliation and ended the controversy by agreeing to most of the Catholic demands. However Catholic memories remained deep and led to a sense that Catholics always needed to stick together in the face of an untrustworthy government.
After the fall of Napoleon, Europe's statesmen convened in Vienna in for the reorganisation of European affairs, under the leadership of the Austrian Prince Metternich. The political principles agreed upon at this Congress of Vienna included the restoration, legitimacy and solidarity of rulers for the repression of revolutionary and nationalist ideas. The German Confederation German : Deutscher Bund was founded, a loose union of 39 states 35 ruling princes and 4 free cities under Austrian leadership, with a Federal Diet German : Bundestag meeting in Frankfurt am Main.
It was a loose coalition that failed to satisfy most nationalists. The member states largely went their own way, and Austria had its own interests. In a student radical assassinated the reactionary playwright August von Kotzebue , who had scoffed at liberal student organisations.
In one of the few major actions of the German Confederation, Prince Metternich called a conference that issued the repressive Carlsbad Decrees , designed to suppress liberal agitation against the conservative governments of the German states. The decrees began the "persecution of the demagogues", which was directed against individuals who were accused of spreading revolutionary and nationalist ideas. In the Zollverein was established, a customs union between Prussia and most other German states, but excluding Austria.
As industrialisation developed, the need for a unified German state with a uniform currency, legal system, and government became more and more obvious. Growing discontent with the political and social order imposed by the Congress of Vienna led to the outbreak, in , of the March Revolution in the German states.
But the revolution turned out to be unsuccessful: King Frederick William IV of Prussia refused the imperial crown, the Frankfurt parliament was dissolved, the ruling princes repressed the risings by military force, and the German Confederation was re-established by Many leaders went into exile, including a number who went to the United States and became a political force there. The s were a period of extreme political reaction. Dissent was vigorously suppressed, and many Germans emigrated to America following the collapse of the uprisings.
Frederick William IV became extremely depressed and melancholic during this period, and was surrounded by men who advocated clericalism and absolute divine monarchy. The Prussian people once again lost interest in politics. Prussia not only expanded its territory but began to industrialize rapidly, while maintaining a strong agricultural base. Although conservative, William was very pragmatic.
His most significant accomplishment was the naming of Otto von Bismarck as Prussian minister president in In —64, disputes between Prussia and Denmark over Schleswig escalated, which was not part of the German Confederation, and which Danish nationalists wanted to incorporate into the Danish kingdom. The conflict led to the Second War of Schleswig in Prussia, joined by Austria, easily defeated Denmark and occupied Jutland. The subsequent management of the two duchies led to tensions between Austria and Prussia.
Austria wanted the duchies to become an independent entity within the German Confederation, while Prussia intended to annex them. The disagreement served as a pretext for the Seven Weeks War between Austria and Prussia, that broke out in June Prussian superior logistics and the modern breech-loading needle guns superioity over the slow muzzle-loading rifles of the Austrians, proved to be elementary for Prussia's victory.
The battle had also decided the struggle for hegemony in Germany and Bismarck was deliberately lenient with defeated Austria, that was to play only a subordinate role in future German affairs. Austria was excluded and its immense influence over Germany finally came to an end. The North German Federation was a transitional organisation that existed from to , between the dissolution of the German Confederation and the founding of the German Empire. Chancellor Otto von Bismarck determined the political course of the German Empire until He fostered alliances in Europe to contain France on the one hand and aspired to consolidate Germany's influence in Europe on the other.
His principal domestic policies focused on the suppression of socialism and the reduction of the strong influence of the Roman Catholic Church on its adherants. He issued a series of anti-socialist laws in accord with a set of social laws, that included universal health care, pension plans and other social security programs.
His Kulturkampf policies were vehemently resisted by Catholics, who organized political opposition in the Center Zentrum Party. German industrial and economic power had grown to match Britain by In , the young and ambitious Kaiser Wilhelm II became emperor. He rejected advice from experienced politicians and ordered Bismarck's resignation in He opposed Bismarck's careful and delicate foreign policy and was determined to pursue colonialist policies, as Britain and France had been doing for centuries.
The Kaiser promoted the active colonization of Africa and Asia for the lands that were not already colonies of other European powers. The Kaiser took a mostly unilateral approach in Europe only allied with the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and embarked on a dangerous naval arms race with Britain. His aggressive and erroneous policies greatly contributed to the situation in which the assassination of the Austrian-Hungarian crown prince would spark off World War I.
When Prussia suggested the Hohenzollern candidate, Prince Leopold as successor, France vehemently objected. The matter evolved into a diplomatic scandal and in July , France resolved to end it in a full-scale war. The conflict was quickly decided as Prussia, joined by forces of a pan-German alliance never gave up the tactical initiative. A series of victories in north-eastern France followed and another French army group was simultaneously encircled at Metz. A few weeks later, the French army contingent under Emperor Napoleon III 's personal command was finally forced to capitulate in the fortress of Sedan.
The new government resolved to fight on and tried to reorganize the remaining armies while the Germans settled down to besiege Paris. The starving city surrendered in January and Jules Favre signed the surrender at Versailles. This conclusion left the French national psyche deeply humiliated and further aggravated the French—German enmity. The act unified all ethnic German states with the exception of Austria in the Little German solution of a federal economic, political and administrative unit. Bismarck, was appointed to serve as Chancellor.
The new empire was a federal union of 25 states that varied considerably in size, demography, constitution, economy, culture, religion and socio-political development. However, even Prussia itself, which accounted for two thirds of the territory as well as of the population, had emerged from the empire's periphery as a newcomer.
It also faced colossal cultural and economic internal divisions. The Prussian provinces of Westphalia and the Rhineland for example had been under French control during the previous decades. The local people, who had benefited from the liberal, civil reforms, that were derived from the ideas of the French Revolution, had only little in common with predominantly rural communities in authoritarian and disjointed Junker estates of Pommerania.
As advocates of free trade, they objected Prussian ideas of economic integration and refused to sign the renewed Zollverein Custom Union treaties until The citizen of Hamburg, whom Bismark characterized as extremely irritating and the German ambassador in London as the worst Germans we have , were particularly appalled by Prussian militarism and its unopposed growing influence. Historians increasingly argue, that the nation-state was forged through empire. Bismarck's domestic policies as Chancellor of Germany were based on his effort to universally adopt the idea of the Protestant Prussian state and achieve the clear separation of church and state in all imperial principalities.
In the Kulturkampf lit. The Kulturkampf antagonised many Protestants as well as Catholics and was eventually abandoned. The millions of non-German imperial subjects, like the Polish, Danish and French minorities, were left with no choice but to endure discrimination or accept   the policies of Germanisation. The new Empire provided attractive top level career opportunities for the national nobility in the various branches of the consular and civil services and the army. As a consequence the aristocratic near total control of the civil sector guaranteed a dominant voice in the decision making in the universities and the churches.
The German diplomatic corps consisted of 8 princes, 29 counts, 20 barons, 54 representants of the lower nobility and a mere 11 commoners. These commoners were indiscriminately recruited from elite industrialist and banking families. The consular corps employed numerous commoners, that however, occupied positions of little to no executive power. Power increasingly was centralized among the aristocrats, who resided in the national capital of Berlin and neighboring Potsdam.
Berlin's rapidly increasing rich middle-class copied the aristocracy and tried to marry into it. A peerage could permanently boost a rich industrial family into the upper reaches of the establishment. For example, of the mines in Silesia were owned by nobles or by the King of Prussia himself.
The middle class in the cities grew exponentially, although it never acquired the powerful parliamentary representation and legislative rights as in France, Britain or the United States. The Association of German Women's Organizations or BDF was established in to encompass the proliferating women's organizations that had emerged since the s.
From the beginning the BDF was a bourgeois organization, its members working toward equality with men in such areas as education, financial opportunities, and political life. Working-class women were not welcome and were organized by the Socialists. The rise of the Socialist Workers' Party later known as the Social Democratic Party of Germany , SPD , aimed to peacefully establish a socialist order through the transformation of the existing political and social conditions.
From , Bismarck tried to oppose the growing social democratic movement by outlawing the party's organisation , its assemblies and most of its newspapers. Nonetheless, the Social Democrats grew stronger and Bismarck initiated his social welfare program in in order to appease the working class. Bismarck built on a tradition of welfare programs in Prussia and Saxony that began as early as the s.
In the s he introduced old age pensions, accident insurance, medical care, and unemployment insurance that formed the basis of the modern European welfare state. His paternalistic programs won the support of German industry because its goals were to win the support of the working classes for the Empire and reduce the outflow of immigrants to America, where wages were higher but welfare did not exist. Bismarck would not tolerate any power outside Germany—as in Rome—having a say in domestic affairs. He launched the Kulturkampf "culture war" against the power of the pope and the Catholic Church in , but only in the state of Prussia.
This gained strong support from German liberals, who saw the Catholic Church as the bastion of reaction and their greatest enemy. The Catholic element, in turn, saw in the National-Liberals the worst enemy and formed the Center Party. Catholics, although nearly a third of the national population, were seldom allowed to hold major positions in the Imperial government, or the Prussian government.
After , there was a systematic purge of the remaining Catholics; in the powerful interior ministry, which handled all police affairs, the only Catholic was a messenger boy. Jews were likewise heavily discriminated against. Most of the Kulturkampf was fought out in Prussia, but Imperial Germany passed the Pulpit Law which made it a crime for any cleric to discuss public issues in a way that displeased the government. Nearly all Catholic bishops, clergy, and laymen rejected the legality of the new laws and defiantly faced the increasingly heavy penalties and imprisonments imposed by Bismarck's government.
Historian Anthony Steinhoff reports the casualty totals:. As of , only three of eight Prussian dioceses still had bishops, some 1, of 4, parishes were vacant, and nearly 1, priests ended up in jail or in exile Finally, between and , numerous Catholic newspapers were confiscated, Catholic associations and assemblies were dissolved, and Catholic civil servants were dismissed merely on the pretence of having Ultramontane sympathies.
Bismarck underestimated the resolve of the Catholic Church and did not foresee the extremes that this struggle would attain. In the following elections, the Center Party won a quarter of the seats in the Imperial Diet. The Center Party gained strength and became an ally of Bismarck, especially when he attacked socialism. Chancellor Bismarck's imperial foreign policy basically aimed at security and the prevention of a Franco-Russian alliance, in order to avoid a likely Two-front war. It stated that republicanism and socialism were common enemies and that the three powers would discuss any matters concerning foreign policy.
Bismarck needed good relations with Russia in order to keep France isolated. Russia fought a victorious war against the Ottoman Empire from to and attempted to establish the Principality of Bulgaria , that was strongly opposed by France and Britain in particular, as they were long concerned with the preservation of the Ottoman Empire and Russian containment at the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea. Germany hosted the Congress of Berlin in , where a more moderate peace settlement was agreed upon. In , Germany formed the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary, an agreement of mutual military assistance in the case of an attack from Russia, which was not satisfied with the agreement of the Congress of Berlin.
The establishment of the Dual Alliance led Russia to take a more conciliatory stance and in , the so-called Reinsurance Treaty was signed between Germany and Russia. In it, the two powers agreed on mutual military support in the case that France attacked Germany or an Austrian attack on Russia. Russia turned its attention eastward to Asia and remained largely inactive in European politics for the next 25 years. In , Italy, seeking supporters for its interests in North Africa against France's colonial policy, joined the Dual Alliance, which became the Triple Alliance.
In return for German and Austrian support, Italy committed itself to assisting Germany in the case of a French attack. Bismarck had always argued that the acquisition of overseas colonies was impractical and the burden of administration and maintenance would outweigh the benefits.
Consequently Bismarck initiated the Berlin Conference of , a formal meeting of the European colonial powers, who sought to "established international guidelines for the acquisition of African territory" see Colonisation of Africa. Emperor William I died in His son Frederick III , open for a more liberal political course, reigned only for ninety-nine days, as he was stricken with throat cancer and died three months after his coronation. His son Wilhelm II followed him on the throne at the age of Wilhelm rejected the liberal ideas of his parents and embarked on a conservative autocratic rule.
He early on decided to replace the political elite and in March he forced chancellor Bismarck into retirement. After the removal of Bismarck, foreign policies were tackled with by the Kaiser and the Federal Foreign Office under Friedrich von Holstein. Wilhelm's increasingly erratic and reckless conduct was unmistakably related to character deficits and the lack of diplomatic skills. First a long-term coalition between France and Russia had to fall apart, secondly, Russia and Britain would never get together, and finally, Britain would eventually seek an alliance with Germany.
Subsequently Wilhelm refused to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia. Russia promptly formed a closer relationship with France in the Dual Alliance of , as both countries were concerned about the novel disagreeability of Germany. Furthermore, Anglo—German relations provided, from a British point of view, no basis for any consensus as the Kaiser refused to divert from his, although somewhat peculiarly desperate and anachronistic, aggressive imperial engagement and the naval arms race in particular.
Von Holstein's analysis proved to be mistaken on every point, Wilhelm, however, failed too, as he did not adopt a nuanced political dialogue. Germany was left gradually isolated and dependent on the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary, and Italy. This agreement was hampered by differences between Austria and Italy and in Italy left the alliance. In Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz , state secretary of the German Imperial Naval Office devised his initially rather practical, yet nonetheless ambitious plan to build a sizeable naval force.
Although basically posing only an indirect threat as a Fleet in being , Tirpitz theorized, that its mere existence would force Great Britain, dependend on unrestricted movement on the seas, to agree to diplomatic compromises. Wilhelm entertained less rational ideas on the fleet, that circled around his romantic childhood dream to have a "fleet of [his] own some day" and his obsessive adherence to direct his policies along the line of Alfred Thayer Mahan 's work The Influence of Sea Power upon History.
Britain considered the imperial German endeavours to be a dangerous infringement on the century-old delicate balance of global affairs and trade on the seas under British control. The British, however, resolved to keep up the naval arms race and introduced the highly advanced new Dreadnought battleship concept in Germany quickly adopted the concept and by the arms race again escalated. In the First Moroccan Crisis of , Germany nearly clashed with Britain and France when the latter attempted to establish a protectorate over Morocco. Kaiser Wilhelm II was upset at having not been informed about French intentions, and declared their support for Moroccan independence.
William II made a highly provocative speech regarding this. The following year, a conference was held in which all of the European powers except Austria-Hungary by now little more than a German satellite sided with France. A compromise was brokered by the United States where the French relinquished some, but not all, control over Morocco. The Second Moroccan Crisis of saw another dispute over Morocco erupt when France tried to suppress a revolt there.
Germany, still smarting from the previous quarrel, agreed to a settlement whereby the French ceded some territory in central Africa in exchange for Germany's renouncing any right to intervene in Moroccan affairs. This confirmed French control over Morocco, which became a full protectorate of that country in By the economy continued to industrialize and grow on an even higher rate than during the previous two decades and increased dramatically in the years leading up to World War I.
As the growth rates for the individual branches and sectors often varied considerably, and periodical figures provided by the Kaiserliches Statistisches Amt "Imperial Statistical Bureau are often disputed or just assessments. Classification and naming of internationally traded commodities and exported goods was still in progress and the structure of production and export had changed during four decades.
Historian J. Perkins argued that more important than Bismarck's new tariff on imported grain was the introduction of the sugar beet as a main crop. Farmers quickly abandoned traditional, inefficient practices in favor of modern methods, including the use of artificial fertilizers and mechanical tools. Intensive methodical farming of sugar and other root crops made Germany the most efficient agricultural producer in Europe by Even so, farms were usually small in size and women did much of the field work. An unintended consequence was the increased dependence on migratory, especially foreign, labor.
The basics of the modern chemical research laboratory layout and the introduction of essential equipment and instruments such as Bunsen burners , the Petri dish , the Erlenmeyer flask , task-oriented working principles and team research originated in 19th-century Germany and France. The organisation of knowledge acquisition was further refined by laboratory integration in research institutes of the universities and the industries. Germany acquired the leading role in the world's Chemical industry by the late 19th century through strictly organized methodology. In , the German Chemical industry produced almost 90 percent of the global supply of dyestuffs and sold about 80 percent of its production abroad.
Germany became Europe's leading steel-producing nation in the s, thanks in large part to the protection from American and British competition afforded by tariffs and cartels. Steel corporation in the United States. The new company emphasized rationalization of management structures and modernization of the technology; it employed a multi-divisional structure and used return on investment as its measure of success.
By , American and German exports dominated the world steel market, as Britain slipped to third place. In machinery, iron and steel, and other industries, German firms avoided cut-throat competition and instead relied on trade associations. Germany was a world leader because of its prevailing "corporatist mentality", its strong bureaucratic tradition, and the encouragement of the government. These associations regulate competition and allowed small firms to function in the shadow of much larger companies. Germany's unification process after was heavily dominated by men and give priority to the "Fatherland" theme and related male issues, such as military prowess.
Founded in , it grew to include separate women's rights groups from until , when the Nazi regime disbanded the organization. Working-class women were not welcome; they were organized by the Socialists. Formal organizations for promoting women's rights grew in numbers during the Wilhelmine period. German feminists began to network with feminists from other countries, and participated in the growth of international organizations.
The largest colonial enterprises were in Africa. Historians are examining the links and precedents between the Herero and Namaqua Genocide and the Holocaust of the s. Ethnic demands for nation states upset the balance between the empires that dominated Europe, leading to World War I , which started in August Germany stood behind its ally Austria in a confrontation with Serbia, but Serbia was under the protection of Russia, which was allied to France. Germany was the leader of the Central Powers, which included Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and later Bulgaria; arrayed against them were the Allies, consisting chiefly of Russia, France, Britain, and in Italy.
In explaining why neutral Britain went to war with Germany, author Paul M. Kennedy recognized it was critical for war that Germany become economically more powerful than Britain, but he downplays the disputes over economic trade imperialism, the Baghdad Railway, confrontations in Central and Eastern Europe, high-charged political rhetoric and domestic pressure-groups.